Understanding typical dental problems – prevention and treatment

Dental problems are common and can affect people of all ages. Whether it is tooth decay, gum disease or enamel erosion, it is important to understand the causes, symptoms and methods of preventing and treating these conditions. Each of these problems can significantly affect oral health and, consequently, overall quality of life. In this article, we will discuss the most important dental problems and answer the question of how to prevent and treat them. Read on and find out.

Dental caries

Dental caries is one of the most common dental diseases affecting both children and adults. It is the result of the action of bacteria found in dental plaque, which, by metabolising sugars present in food, produce acids that destroy tooth enamel. This process leads to the demineralisation of the enamel and the subsequent formation of cavities.

The causes of caries are complex and multifactorial. The main risk factors include poor oral hygiene, a diet rich in sugars and carbohydrates, insufficient fluoride, dry mouth and certain systemic diseases.

The basis of prevention is thorough daily oral hygiene, which includes brushing teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste and regular flossing to remove plaque from the interdental spaces. It is also important to limit the consumption of foods and drinks rich in sugars, which are a breeding ground for cariogenic bacteria.

Regular follow-up visits to the dentist, at least once every six months, allow early detection and treatment of caries before more serious damage occurs. The use of fluoride preparations, such as mouthwashes and toothpaste, strengthens the enamel and increases its resistance to acids.

Gum diseases

Gum diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, are a serious threat to oral health.

Gingivitis is the mildest form of gum disease. Its main cause is poor oral hygiene, which leads to the accumulation of plaque at the gum line. Therefore, to avoid the development of the disease, particular emphasis should be placed on oral hygiene. Bacteria found in dental plaque cause inflammation of the gums, which manifests itself as redness, swelling and bleeding when brushing the teeth. Gingivitis is reversible, provided it is detected and treated early enough. The basis of treatment is to improve oral hygiene through regular tooth brushing, flossing and professional teeth cleaning by a dentist.

Periodontitis is a more advanced form of gum disease that develops when gingivitis is not properly treated. Periodontitis involves the destruction of periodontal tissues, including the ligaments and bones that hold the teeth in the mouth. The symptoms of periodontitis are more severe and include chronic gingivitis, gingival recession, periodontal pocket formation, discharge of pus from the gums and tooth mobility. In advanced cases, it can lead to tooth loss.

The treatment of periodontitis requires more advanced methods than the treatment of gingivitis. A deep cleaning of the teeth, called scaling and curettage, must be performed to remove plaque and tartar from the surface of the roots of the teeth and to smooth the surface of the roots to prevent the re-accumulation of plaque. In some cases, surgical procedures such as flap surgery may be necessary.

Enamel erosion

Enamel erosion is a process in which the surface of the teeth is gradually damaged by the action of acids, leading to the loss of the hard tissues of the tooth. That problem can affect people of all ages and it is often difficult to reverse.

Frequent consumption of products such as citrus, fruit juices and fizzy drinks can lead to demineralisation of the enamel and its gradual destruction.

Symptoms of enamel erosion can be different and depend on the severity of the process. In the initial stages, erosion may manifest itself in increased tooth sensitivity to cold, warm, sweet or sour foods and drinks.

Treatment of enamel erosion involves stopping the erosion process, protecting and restoring the damaged tooth tissue. The primary step is to identify and eliminate the causative factors. Patients are advised to avoid or limit the consumption of acidic foods and beverages and to use straws when drinking acidic beverages to minimise acid contact with the tooth surface.

In the case of advanced enamel erosion, dental intervention may be necessary, e.g. fluoridation or the use of composite fillings, to rebuild the lost tooth structure.


Common dental problems such as tooth decay, gum disease and enamel erosion are common and negatively impact oral health and quality of life. The causes of these conditions are diverse and often result from improper oral hygiene, poor eating habits and insufficient prevention. A key element in preventing the discussed issues is daily dental hygiene, regular dental check-ups and the use of enamel-strengthening products. If dental problems already exist, appropriate treatment, such as plaque removal, scaling or surgical interventions, can restore oral health and prevent more serious complications.